behavior explains the world’s woes in government corruption, citizens’ misconduct, corporate scandals, misdemeanour in the
in civil society, spousal indiscretion and infidelity, the desecration of rule of law, and even the persistence of illegitimate
authoritarian states and despotic rulers. If corruption is betrayal of public trust, it is kakistocracy that breeds
acts of betrayal. Kakistocracy is thus the cultivation of corruption in society”.
Rule of the Unprincipled, Unethical, and Unqualified
By Dr. Ronnie V. Amorado
The Philippines is perceived as one of the most corrupt countries in the world. The Corruption
Perception Indexes (CPIs) of the Berlin-based Transparency International revealed the country’s
corruption perception levels at the bottom rung since the 1990s. Unresolved national scandals beset various government administrations
since the Martial Law period, thereby validating – and shaping as well – the widespread negative public perceptions.
the country is not lagging behind in designing reforms to reduce corruption. In fact, the World Bank and other countries have
recognized its world-class anticorruption initiatives in the public sector as well as in the various private sector and civil
society organizations. Even the business groups, academe, the Church and broad-based citizens’ movements have joined
the government’s efforts – either in collaboration or antagonism – in combating corruption in all fronts.
However, as reform initiatives grow in sophistication, corruption likewise rears and gears into more insidious cleverness,
thereby intensifying its gnawing influence in Philippine society. Thus the country perpetually staggers, like a big turtle
with its small head of reforms wanting to forge ahead but is held back by the heavy shell of corruption.
Corruption is betrayal of public trust, and kakistocracy is
the raging torrent gushing acts of betrayal. Thus, kakistocratic behavior makes corruption intractable and betrayal as an
effective tool of the trade. Corruption persists because of the hegemony of kakistocratic leaders in all types of organizations
in the Philippines.
corruption and stories of grand malfeasance manifest in the many unresolved national scandals that rock the Philippine government.
The stories of those involved - either as perpetrators or victims - are all told and written in media. But almost all of these
stories only end up in dragging perfunctory investigations or being used for political commodity. They unfortunately fail
to elevate into serious intellectual discourse that allow for theoretical abstraction and meaningful insights for reform.
This book digs deeper into the untold corruption stories from
a lens of a betrayal theory for theoretical abstraction, as well as generate meaningful insights for anticorruption initiatives
through a citizenship-based country strategy for the Philippines. For emancipation, a concept of citizenship as a countervailing
power is juxtaposed to challenge corruption and betrayal.
Carrying on Ronnie Amorado’s framework of the dark side of social capital and perverse
networks in corruption (Fixing Society, 2007), a betrayal theory will look at the various stakes and roles of actors,
notions and elements of betrayal, techniques and modus operandi, as well as the pains and struggles of the betrayed through
careful case documentation and analysis of their lived experiences.
As the research bleeds for the stories of the betrayed, it aims to seek
justice by immortalizing their betrayal experiences for others to learn. Betrayal is a universal hurtful transgression that
undermines people’s integrity and society’s probity. Betrayal is the antithesis of decency.
Malin Akerström (Betrayal
and Betrayers: The Sociology of Treachery, 1991) shows the profound
universality of betrayal: “Betrayal is a breach of trust, when information is shared beyond an agreed upon boundary
of relations, whether that boundary is a pair of friends or a nation!”
Partner organizations in this website while it was
actively publishing news excerpts:
Ehem -- the anti-corruption initiative
of the Philippine Jesuits echoes the urgent call for cultural reform against corruption in the Philippines. Ehem
aims at bringing people to a renewed sensitivity to the evil of corruption and its prevalence in ordinary life. It seeks ultimately
to make them more intensely aware of their own vulnerability to corruption, their own uncritiqued, often unwitting practice
of corruption in daily life. Ehem hopes to bring people, in the end, to a commitment to live the way of Ehemplo --- critical
of corruption, intent on integrity!
Management Association of the Philippines MAP is a management organization
committed to promoting management excellence. The members of the MAP represent a cross-section of CEOs, COOs and other top
executives from the top local and multinational companies operating in the country, including some top officials of government
and the academe.
iProsupports the process of reducing
corruption by seeking synergies between Government of the Republic of
the Philippines agencies and civil society at all levels.
This website primarily serves to gather for research and educational purposes in one
single place news and information specifically pertinent to integrity and corruption in the Philippines. The news items,
views, editorials and opinions summarized or reported on this website are taken from the general media and reputable blogs,
websites, etc., and are exclusively the responsibility of the original sources and/or authors. In accordance with Title
17 U. S. C. Section 107, any copyrighted work on this website is distributed under fair use without profit or payment to those
who have expressed an interest in receiving the included information for nonprofit research and educational purposes only.